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between the scholars and the civic authorities was at most times
comparatively unimportant. The real struggle which determined
the constitution of the university was that which went on all
through the Thirteenth Century between the masters' gild and
the Chancellor of Notre Dame as representing the Church of
Paris. Originally the chancellor as the head of the cathedral school
was the supreme educational authority in the city, and every per-
son desiring to teach had to receive from him the licentia docendi.
Not only did he claim the right to give or withold (and even to
withdraw) the licence as he pleased, but he insisted that masters
and students should be completely under his jurisdiction in
matters of government and discipline. The masters for their part
were not disposed to admit this claim. They recognized his right
to confer the licence, but asserted that it was for them to fix the
conditions of mastership, and they refused to allow any masters to
enter their gild who had not conformed to their regulations. To
the officials of the Church in Paris, this demand for autonomy
seemed to be rank rebellion against the constituted authority, and
every effort was made to crush it. In the first decade of the
century, the chancellor began the contest by requiring all masters
to swear obedience to himself. The masters met this stroke by
appealing to Pope Innocent III, and the pope gave his decision in
their favour. In a Bull of 1212, the chancellor was forbidden to
exact an oath of obedience from the masters, and required to
confer the licence gratuitously on all candidates put forward by
them. Only in the faculty of arts was he given a partial control.
In spite of the papal judgment, the local ecclesiastics continued
their efforts to reduce masters and students to subjection, and
actually excommunicated the whole university body because they
drew up statutes for their own government. Again and again
appeal was made to Rome, and the decisions, as before, were
mainly in favour of the university. The chancellor's prison was
abolished and the excommunication of the university forbidden
without the express sanction of the pope.

But the troubles of the university were by no means at an end.
In 1229, after a brawl between citizens and students, a number of
students were killed by a band of soldiers sent by the king, with
the connivance of the Bishop of Paris, to quell the riot. The
masters at once suspended their lectures, and when that proved of
no effect, broke up the university. Many of them crossed to